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Key of Symbols

✝ Magnetic material (requires special sputter source)

‡ One run only

* Influenced by composition

** The z-ratio is unknown. Therefore, we recommend using 1.00 or an experimentally

determined value. Please click here for instructions on how to determine this value.

*** All metals alumina coated

C = carbon Ex = excellent PDC = Pulsed DC sputtering
Gr = graphite G = good RF = RF sputtering is effective
Q = quartz F = fair RF-R = reactive RF sputter is effective
Incl = Inconel® P = poor DC = DC sputtering is effective
VitC = vitreous carbon S = sublimes DC-R = reactive DC sputtering is effective
SS = stainless steel D = decomposes  
 
Material Symbol MP(°C) S/D g/cm3 Z Ratio Temp.(°C) for Given Vap. Press. (Torr) E-Beam Evaporation Thermal Evaporation Sputter Comments
108 106 104 E-Beam Performance Liner Material Boat Coil Basket Crucible
Aluminum Arsenide AlAs 1600 - 3.7 - - ~1,300 - - - - - - - RF -
Aluminum Bromide AlBr3 97 - 2.64 - - - ~50 - - Mo - - Gr - -
Aluminum Carbide Al4C3 ~1,400 D 2.36 - - - ~800 Fair - - - - - RF -
Aluminum Fluoride AlF3 1291 S 2.88 - 410 490 700 Poor Graphite, Fabmate® Mo, W, Ta - - Gr RF -
Aluminum Nitride AlN >2,200 S 3.26 **100 - - ~1750 Fair - - - - - RF-R Decomposes. Reactive evap in 10-3 T N2 with glow discharge.
Aluminum Oxide Al 2O 3 >2,072 - 3.97 0.336 - - 1550 Excellent Fabmate®, Tungsten W - W - RF-R Sapphire excellent in E-beam; forms smooth, hard films.
Aluminum Phosphide AlP >2,000 - 2.42 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Aluminum, 1% Coppe Al/Cu 99/1 wt% >640 - 2.82 **100 - - - - - - - - - DC Wire feed & flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Aluminum, 1% Silicon Al/Si 99/1 wt % >640 - 2.69 **100 - - 1010 Fair - - - - TiB2-BN RF, DC Wire feed & flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Antimony Sb 630 S 6.68 0.768 279 345 425 Poor - Mo*** Ta*** Mo, Ta Mo, Ta BN, C, Al 2O 3 RF, DC Evaporates well.
Antimony Oxide Sb 2O 3 656 S 5.2 - - - ~300 Good - - - - BN,Al 2O 3 RF-R Decomposes on W.
Antimony Selenide Sb 2Se 3 611 - - - - - -   - Ta - - C RF Stoichiometry variable.
Antimony Sulfide Sb 2S 3 >550 - 4064 - - - ~200 Good Molybdenum, Tantalum Mo, Ta - Mo, Ta Al 2O 3 - No decomposition
Antimony Telluride Sb 2Te 3 >629 - 6.5 **1.00 - - 600 - - - - - C RF Decomposes over 750°C.
Arsenic As >817 S 5.73 - 107 150 210 Poor Fabmate® C - - Al 2O 3 - Sublimes rapidly at low temp. Not recommended for sputtering.
Arsenic Oxide As 2O 3 >312 - 3.74 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Arsenic Selenide As 2Se 3 ~360 - 4.75 - - - - - - - - - Al 2O 3,Q RF -
Arsenic Sulfide As 2S 3 300 - 3.43 - - - ~400 Fair - Mo - - Al 2O 3,Q RF -
Arsenic Telluride As 2Te 3 >362 - 6.5 - - - - - - Flash - - - - See JVST. 1973, 10:748
Barium Ba >725 - 3.51 2.1 545 627 735 Fair - W,Ta,Mo W W Metals RF Wets without alloying, reacts with ceramics. Not recommended for sputtering.
Barium Chloride BaCl 2 963 - 3.92 - - - ~650 - - Ta,Mo - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Barium Fluoride BaF 2 1355 S 4.89 0.793 - - ~700 Good Molybdenum Mo - - - RF -
Barium Oxide BaO 1918 - 5.72 - - - ~1300 Poor - - - - Al 2O 3 RF,RF-R Decomposes slightly.
Barium Sulfide BaS 1200 - 4.25 - - - 1100 - - Mo - - - RF -
Barium Titanate BaTiO 3 1625 D 6.02 0.464 - - - - - - - - - RF Gives Ba. Co-evap and Sputter OK.
Beryllium Be 1278 - 1.85 - 710 878 1000 Excellent Graphite, Fabmate® W,Ta W W C DC Wets W/Mo/Ta. Evaporates easily
Beryllium Carbide Be 2C >2100 D 1.9 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Beryllium Chloride BeCl2 405 - 1.9 - - - ~150 - - - - - - RF -
Beryllium Fluoride BeF2 800 S 1.99 - - - ~200 Good - - - - - - -
Beryllium Oxide BeO 2530 - 3.01 - - - 1900 Good - - - W - RF,RF-R No decomposition from E-beam guns.
Bismuth Bi 271 - 9.8 0.79 330 410 520 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite W, Mo, Ta W W Al 2O 3 DC Resistivity high. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Bismuth Fluoride BiF3 727 S 5.32 - - - ~300 - - - - - Gr RF -
Bismuth Oxide Bi2O3 860 - 8.55 **1.00 - - ~1400 Poor - - - - - RF,RF-R -
Bismuth Selenide Bi 2Se3 710 D 6.82 **1.00 - - ~650 Good - - - - Gr,Q RF Co-evap from 2 sources or sputter.
Bismuth Sulfide Bi 2S3 685 D 7.39 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Bismuth Telluride Bi 2Te3 573 - 7.7 **1.00 - - ~600 - - W,Mo - - Gr,Q RF Co-evap from 2 sources or sputter.
Bismuth Titanate Bi 2Ti 2O 7 870 D - - - - - - - - - - - RF Sputter or co-evap from 2 sources in 10-2 Torr O2.
Boron B 2079 - 2.34 0.389 1278 1548 1797 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite C - - C RF Explodes with rapid cooling. Forms carbide with container.
Boron Carbide B 4C3 2350 - 2.52 **1.00 2500 2580 2650 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite - - - - RF Similar to chromium.
Boron Nitride BN ~3000 S 2.25 - - - ~1600 Poor - - - - - RF,RF-R Decomposes when sputtered. Reactive preferred.
Boron Oxide B 2O3 ~450 - 1.81 - - - ~1400 Good Molybdenum Mo - - - - -
Boron Sulfide B 2S3 310 - 1.55 - - - 800 - - - - - Gr RF -
Cadmium Cd 321 - 8.64 0.682 64 120 180 Poor - W,Mo,Ta - W,Mo,Ta Al 2O 3,Q DC,RF Bad for vacuum systems. Low sticking coefficient.
Cadmium Antimonide Cd3Sb 2 456 - 6.92 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Cadmium Arsenide Cd3As 2 721 - 6.21 - - - - - - - - - Q RF -
Cadmium Bromide CdBr2 567 - 5.19 - - - ~300 - - - - - - - -
Cadmium Chloride CdCl2 568 - 4.05 - - - ~400 - - - - - - - -
Cadmium Fluoride CdF2 1100 - 6.64 - - - ~500 - - - - - - RF -
Cadmium Iodide CdI2 387 - 5.67 - - - ~250 - - - - - - - -
Cadmium Oxide CdO >1500 D 6.95 - - - ~530 - - - - - - RF-R Disproportionates.
Cadmium Selenide CdSe >1350 S 5.81 **1.00 - - 540 Good Molybdenum, Tantalum Mo, Ta - - Al 2O 3,Q RF Evaporates easily.
Cadmium Sulfide CdS 1750 S 4.82 1.02 - - 550 Fair - W,Mo,Ta - W Al 2O 3,Q RF Sticking coefficient affected by substrate.
Cadmium Telluride CdTe 1092 - 5.85 0.98 - - 450 - - W,Mo,Ta W W,Ta,Mo - RF Stoichiometry depends on substrate temp. n~2.6.
Calcium Ca 839 S 1.54 2.62 272 357 459 Poor - W W W Al2O3, Q - Corrodes in air.
Calcium Silicate CaSiO3 1540 - 2.91 - - - - Good - - - - Q RF -
Calcium Tungstate CaWO4 1200 - 6.06 - - - - Good - W - - - RF -
Cerium (III) Oxide Ce2O3 1692 - 6.86 - - - - Fair - W - - - - Alloys with source. Use 0.015"–0.020" W boat.
Cerium (IV) Oxide CeO2 ~2,600 - 7.13 **1.00 1890 2000 2310 Good Tantalum, Graphite, Fabmate® W - - - RF, RF-R Very little decomposition.
Cerium Fluoride CeF3 1460 - 6.16 **1.00 - - ~900 Good Tungsten, Tantalum, Molybdenum W, Mo, Ta - Mo, Ta - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n~1.7.
Cesium Cs 28 - 1.88 - -16 22 80 - - - - - Q - -
Cesium Bromide CsBr 636 - 3.04 - - - ~400 - - W - - - RF -
Cesium Chloride CsCl 645 - 3.99 - - - ~500 - - W - - - RF -
Cesium Fluoride CsF 682 - 4.12 - - - ~500 - - W - - - RF -
Cesium Hydroxide CsOH 272 - 3.68 - - - 550 - - - - - - - -
Cesium Iodide CsI 626 - 4.51 - - - ~500 - - W - - Q RF -
Chiolite Na5Al3F14 735 - 2.9 - - - ~800 - - Mo, W - - - RF -
Chromium Cr 1857 S 7.2 0.305 837 977 1157 Good Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten Cr Plated W Rods W W VitC DC Films very adherent. High rates possible.
Chromium Boride CrB 1,950-2,050 - 6.17 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Chromium (II) Bromide CrBr2 842 - 4.36 - - - 550 - - - - - - RF -
Chromium Carbide Cr3C2 1895 - 6.68 - - - ~2,000 Fair - W - - - RF -
Chromium Chloride CrCl2 824 - 2.88 - - - 550 - - Fe - - - RF -
Chromium Oxide Cr2O3 2266 - 5.21 **1.00 - - ~2,000 Good - W, Mo - W - RF, RF-R Disproportionates to lower oxides; reoxidizes at 600°C in air.
Chromium Silicide CrSi2 1490 - 5.5 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Chromium-Silicon Monoxide Cr-SiO - S * - * * * Good - W - W - RF Flash evaporate.
Cobalt † Co 1495 - 8.9 0.343 850 990 1200 Excellent Direct in Hearth W, Nb - W Al2O3 DC Alloys with W/Ta/Mo.
Cobalt Bromide CoBr2 678 D 4.91 - - - 400 - - - - - - RF -
Cobalt Chloride CoCl2 724 D 3.36 - - - 472 - - - - - - RF -
Cobalt Oxide CoO 1795 - 6.45 0.412 - - - - - - - - - DC-R, RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Copper Cu 1083 - 8.92 0.437 727 857 1017 Excellent Graphite, Molybdenum Mo, W W W Al2O3, Mo, Ta DC Adhesion poor. Use interlayer (Cr). Evaporates using any source material.
Copper Chloride CuCl 430 - 4.14 - - - ~600 - - - - - - RF -
Copper Oxide Cu2O 1235 S 6 **1.00 - - ~600 Good Graphite, Fabmate®, Tantalum Ta - - Al2O3 DC-R, RF-R -
Copper Sulfide Cu2S 1100 - 5.6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Cryolite Na3AlF6 1000 - 2.9 - 1020 1260 1480 Excellent Fabmate®, Tungsten W, Mo, Ta - W, Mo, Ta VitC RF Large chunks reduce spitting. Little decomposition.
Dysprosium Dy 1412 - 8.55 0.6 625 750 900 Good Direct in Hearth Ta - - - DC -
Dysprosium Fluoride DyF3 1360 S - - - - ~800 Good - Ta - - - RF -
Dysprosium Oxide Dy2O3 2340 - 7.81 - - - ~1,400 - - - - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Erbium Er 1529 S 9.07 0.74 650 775 930 Good Tungsten, Tantalum W, Ta - - - DC -
Erbium Fluoride ErF3 1350 - 7.82 - - - ~750 - - Mo - - - RF See JVST. 1985; A3(6):2320.
Erbium Oxide Er2O3 2350 - 8.64 **1.00 - - ~1,600 - - - - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Europium Eu 822 S 5.24 **1.00 280 360 480 Fair - W, Ta - - Al2O3 DC Low Ta solubility.
Europium Fluoride EuF2 1380 - 6.5 - - - ~950 - - Mo - - - RF -
Europium Oxide Eu2O3 2350 - 7.42 - - - ~1,600 Good - Ta, W - - ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen. Films clear and hard.
Europium Sulfide EuS - - 5.75 - - - - Good - - - - - RF -
Gadolinium † Gd 1313 - 7.9 0.67 760 900 1175 Excellent Direct in Hearth Ta - - Al2O3 DC High Ta solubility
Gadolinium Carbide GdC2 - - - - - - 1500 - - - - - C RF Decomposes under sputtering.
Gadolinium Oxide Gd2O3 2330 - 7.41 - - - - Fair - - - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Gallium Ga 30 - 5.9 - 619 742 907 Good Fabmate® - - - Al2O3, Q - Alloys with W/Ta/Mo. Use E-beam gun. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Gallium Antimonide GaSb 710 - 5.6 - - - - Fair - W, Ta - - - RF Flash evaporate.
Gallium Arsenide GaAs 1238 - 5.3 - - - - Good Graphite, Fabmate® W, Ta - - C RF Flash evaporate.
Gallium Nitride GaN 800 S 6.1 - - - ~200 - - - - - Al2O3 RF, RF-R Evaporate Ga in 10-3Torr N2.
Gallium Oxide Ga2O3 1900 - 6.44 - - - - - - W - - - RF Loses oxygen.
Gallium Phosphide GaP 1540 - 4.1 - - 770 920 - - W, Ta - W Q RF Does not decompose. Rate control important.
Germanium Ge (N-type) 937 - 5.35 0.516 812 957 1167 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite W, C, Ta - - Q, Al2O3 DC Excellent films from E-beam.
Germanium (II) Oxide GeO 700 S - - - - 500 - - - - - Q RF -
Germanium (III) Oxide GeO2 1086 - 6.24 - - - ~625 Good Fabmate®, Tantalum, Molybdenum Ta, Mo - W, Mo Q, Al2O3 RF-R Similar to SiO; film predominantly GeO.
Germanium Nitride Ge3N2 450 S 5.2 - - - ~650 - - - - - - RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Germanium Telluride GeTe 725 - 6.2 - - - 381 - - W, Mo - W Q, Al2O3 RF -
Glass, Schott® 8329 1300 - 2.2 - - - - Excellent - - - - - RF Evaporable alkali glass. Melt in air before evaporating.
Gold Au 1064 - 19.32 0.381 807 947 1132 Excellent Fabmate®, Molybdenum W*** Mo*** W - - Al2O3, BN DC Films soft; not very adherent.
Hafnium Hf 2227 - 13.31 0.36 2160 2250 3090 Good - - - - - DC -
Hafnium Boride HfB2 3250 - 10.5 - - - - - - - - - - DC, RF -
Hafnium Carbide HfC ~3,890 S 12.2 **1.00 - - ~2,600 - - - - - - RF -
Hafnium Nitride HfN 3305 - 13.8 **1.00 - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Hafnium Oxide HfO2 2758 - 9.68 **1.00 - - ~2,500 Fair Direct in Hearth - - - - RF, RF-R Film HfO.
Hafnium Silicide HfSi2 1750 - 7.2 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Holmium Ho 1474 - 8.8 0.58 650 770 950 Good - W, Ta W W - - -
Holmium Fluoride HoF3 1143 - 7.68 - - - ~800 - - - - - Q DC, RF -
Holmium Oxide Ho2O3 2370 - 8.41 - - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Inconel® Ni/Cr/Fe 1425 - 8.5 - - - - Good Fabmate®, Tungsten W W W - DC Use fine wire wrapped on W. Low rate required for smooth films.
Indium In 157 - 7.3 0.841 487 597 742 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite, Molybdenum W, Mo - W Gr, Al2O3 DC Wets W and Cu. Use Mo liner. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Indium (I) Oxide In2O ~600 S 6.99 - - - 650 - - - - - - RF Decomposes under sputtering.
Indium (III) Oxide In2O3 850 - 7.18 **1.00 - - ~1,200 Good - W, Pt - - Al2O3 - -
Indium (I) Sulfide In2S 653 - 5.87 - - - 650 - - - - - Gr RF -
Indium (II) Sulfide InS 692 S 5.18 - - - 650 - - - - - Gr RF -
Indium (III) Sulfide In2S3 1050 S 4.9 - - - 850 - - - - - Gr RF Film In2S.
Indium (II) Telluride InTe 696 - 6.29 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Indium (III) Telluride In2Te3 667 - 5.78 - - - - - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash.
Indium Antimonide InSb 535 - 5.8 - - - - - - W - - - RF Decomposes. Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate.
Indium Arsenide InAs 943 - 5.7 - 780 870 970 - - W - - - RF -
Indium Nitride InN 1200 - 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Indium Phosphide InP 1070 - 4.8 - - 630 730 - - W, Ta - W, Ta Gr RF Deposits are P rich.
Indium Selenide In2Se3 890 - 5.67 - - - - - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash.
Indium Tin Oxide In2O3/SnO290/10 wt %